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Summary
ProduceEgypt Mandarin
Common NamesTangerine
Varieties Satsuma, Clementine, Kinnow, Willowleaf, Dancy, Fremont
Size 4-8 cm
SeasonDecember through March
PackingPacked in 17kg crates or cartons According to client request
Transport conditionsTransported in coolers Good ventilation Dry atmosphere

Mandarins are of the citrus family, the distinction being that they are seedless and have an easy segmentation. You may enjoy Egypt mandarin oranges as a fruit or juice, and also, its peels can be zested or used to make spices. 

Genetic studies have shown the mandarin to be among one of the first fruits of the citrus species hence making it the parent plant or ancestor of most citrus fruits like lime and sweet and sour oranges through breeding or hybridization. The initial ancestral mandarin was bitter, but strains from genetic modification have provided a sweet fruit. 

Egypt mandarin, in comparison to oranges, are much smaller and oblate with a 4-8cm size. They have bright orange to red-orange colored peel. Their tree is small and spiny with long, slender branches. The fruit variety dictates whether the tree will be erect or drooping during its growth, which has a mature length of 7-8m. 

Mandarin is the second-largest cultivated group of the citrus family in Egypt. Nubaria district, North Sinai, and Ismailia in order of land size production are the three main areas for this cultivation. Egypt production for mandarin by 2017 was at a million tons.

Dancy tangerine is smaller and has more seeds compared to the other varieties. It has a rich, spicy flavor and ripens from December to January. From fall to winter is when the medium-sized Fremont mandarin matures. Mediterranean mandarin also is known as Willow leaf, has a smooth and glossy appearance and ripens in spring. Kinnow mandarin has a distinct fragrance and ripens between January and April. Satsuma mandarin ripens between November and December, making it one of the early variety to ripen.

The Egypt mandarin requires tropical and subtropical areas with pronounced seasonal change. This means growth stage requires different temperatures(55°-100°F) from the dormancy stage (35°-50°F). The growth of the mandarin plant needs a well-drained soil that contains a neutral Ph (6.0 and 7.5). This tree can tolerate drought conditions. It does well in a site with access to full sunlight or partial shade. The trees bear fruit after three to four years of planting. Seed propagation is through grafting or budding. 

Harvesting of Egypt mandarin fruits is as soon as it turns orange lest the flavor deteriorates. Any time before that, however, is a waste of product because the fruit does not ripen after being picked. When ripe, it is firm to slightly soft and heavy for its small size. Harvesting is done by cutting the stem from a fruit with a hand pruner where the stem enters the fruit. An electronic sizer then screens and separates the produce based on size, color, and defect. The fruits are after packed in boxes and stored in large coolers in preparation for exportation. Egypt mainly exports to Russia, the EU, and the Middle East. Recent years have seen an increase in exportation of the products to China. The 2017 export as per current research was 101,000 tons; three times increase since the exportation started three years before then.

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