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Varieties Balady & Chinese-Sids 40
Size 12inches width and 18inches height
Packing 2kg string packs in 17-25kg cartons
Availability January to February
Storage conditions Cool, dry place away from direct sunlight
Transportation conditions Free from moisture and direct sunlight
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Egypt is among the first countries to adopt the growth of garlic. Garlic has been grown in Egypt for over 5000 years. Garlic is of the Liliaceae family and Allium sativum class. Egypt garlic is of different varieties such as Rocambole, Purple Stripe, Purple Stripe/Glazed, Purple Stripe/Marbled, Porcelain, Artichoke, Artichoke Asiatic, Asiatic Turban and Silverskin/Creole.


Garlic cloves develop from a  primordial bud from which 2 to 3 buds grow. The growth and development of garlic are profoundly affected by temperature. Garlic is mainly grown alongside other plants such as roses to control pests and diseases. Garlic grows 2ft or taller. A  The plant is perennial, and it forms a bulb with 4 to 20 cloves per plant. Each garlic clove is one gram. The leaves are strap-like growing 1-2 ft long, growing around a flower-like a stalk. The bulb which grows underground is composed of thick sheets.


Garlic’s grow in well-drained soils and require adequate sunshine. The best soil for growing garlic is sandy clay loam fertile soils with a PH of 6.2-6.8. They require frequent watering during growth for a good yield. 


On maturity, the leaves dry up and fall. Proper timing for harvest is essential to prevent the cloves from splitting after collection. The garlic is left to dry for 2weeks in a dry, cool place preferably hanged. The plant is harvested with a few live leaves for it to maintain good quality for stability. It should also retain some of the outer leaves for cover for protection during storage.  


After harvesting, the garlic requires curing. For this to happen, it should be stored in a cool, dry, dark and well-ventilated place after collection. The green leaves and roots should not be removed; instead, let to dry along with the bulb. The bulbs should be kept away from the sun after harvesting. During storage, the curing process helps the bulb to develop the desired flavour. After the curing process, the thoroughly dried leaves and roots removed. The bulbs remain of good quality for four months to 1 year. 


The garlic has many uses. The cloves are the edible part of the plant, which is essential to give food a distinct flavour in a wide range of dishes. The build is used fresh or dry in cuisines. Another product of garlic is garlic oil. Garlic is medicinal as it produces allicin compound, which is an antifungal and an antibiotic. It also contains flavonoids, minerals, vitamin B, enzymes, ajoene and alliin.


The garlic bulb grows 12 to 9 inches wide and 18 to 12 inches in height. During harvesting, the stems are cut and roots trimmed. Garlic varies depending on regions and exists in different flavour, colour, size and shape. There is pink, purple, red and white garlic. However, garlic flowers hardly produce any seeds. The leaves are longitudinally folded with grey-greenish colour. They form a cluster of white blossoms.


Garlic for export is classified class extra class with a diameter of 45mm, class I and class II (both of 30mm). The packaging should be in material that does not cause damage to the produce mostly in 2kg string packs. The packs are then put in a carton of 10-17kgs. In other cases, the bulbs are packaged in jute bags and baskets. The produce is put in open containers for free air circulation. For more extended periods of 7months, garlic can be refrigerated between 0°C -1°C. Egypt produced 162,000 MT of garlic in 2005. The primary destinations for Egypt garlic include USA, Malaysia, Brazil and Indonesia.


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